June 11-14 and October 1-4, 2015. For more information, please click here.
Preface by Eve: I’d like to do two introductions here. One for Julian who is a visual artist and student at the University of Washington School of Arts. Julian has fastidiously studied and explored concepts such as those from Japanese aesthetics, in his art practice. A recipient of numerous art scholarships, Julian held his first solo in 2011 and was named Best Artist for South Sound by South Sound magazine.
The other introduction is for Judith Kruger, our contributing editor of Nihonga 100. Judy is an accomplished artist, writer and advocate of Nihonga.
– The post below is written by Julian Pena
It all started with Takashi Murakami’s essay titled “Superflat,” a concept that explains the Japanese aesthetic sensibilities and how modern Japanese popular culture bridges influence coming from the Edo period. Murakami earned a PhD in Fine Arts in the Nihonga painting school. Intrigued by his visual techniques, I started researching Nihonga painting (traditional Japanese paintingusing mineral pigments). Shortly after I learned that instruction in Nihonga painting, whether it is books or the web, is scarce.
After months of surfing the vast Internet I came across Judith Kruger a Nihonga artist and teacher. She was taught under Makoto Fujimara, who also studied alongside Takashi Murakami. Finally, a Nihonga painting course available in the US!
After a good year of communication with Judy, she notifies me via e-mail of an upcoming Nihonga course which taking place in Savannah, Georgia. Realizing the rare opportunity, I began planning my trip to Georgia that same week.
June 14th, 2012 (also the day of my graduation ceremony at Tacoma Community College) was the first day of classes, lasting through Sunday in a total of 3 days of classes. Before classes began I took the time to check out Savannah and it’s historic district in downtown. Despite the extreme heat and humidity, I lugged around two heavy bags before I met with my hotel mate later that evening (Mark). Susan and Eileen were the two other students who were in Savannah the same reason I was.
On the first day of classes Judy introduced Nanou, a fun and amazing woman from Australia who took up an artist residency with Judith. She is a profound artist and provided great insight to the art of Nihonga. Judy started off the class with a short history on pigments and Nihonga painting, providing a good foundation for what is to come. We delve into the course with familiarizing ourselves with tools, pigments, and techniques of Nihonga painting. Judy articulated her instruction to where it can be easily understood by us Westerners. I can tell she is very knowledgeable on this subject. Her large-scale works loomed in presence for additional inspiration and visual example of the product of Nihonga painting. Our first lesson involved Japanese papers and mounting them on various substrates such as stretching silk on a frame or paper onto a board. We also learned about the importance of cowhide glue (nikawa), sizing (dosa), and the different natures of various types of Japanese paper (washi). Throughout each lesson, Judy provides an interactive instruction and demonstrates the technique being taught. That has always helped me in the past to really get involved with actively practicing the new materials.
Continuing onto the second day, we were introduced to natural pigments used in traditional Japanese painting such as azurite or malachite. This is when I first realized the beauty behind using mineral pigments in painting. The different grain sizes are emphasized in Nihonga painting, being utilized for specific purposes such as color, texture, or sheen. Like oil in oil paint, cowhide glue is used as the binder for the mineral pigments in Nihonga. The strength and weakness of the glue must be strategically considered when painting with different grit sizes and materials. We proceeded with our drawings on our substrates so we can begin playing with the new pigments. Judy then talked about other techniques used in Nihonga and talked about different artists in Nihonga painting history. During the painting process Judy gave personal critiques every step of the way. Due to the small class size, we had an advantage of asking for the instructor’s assistance and guidance more so than a typical college class.
Finally the third day, we proceeded into advanced techniques including gold leafing and patinas. We also used this day to complete our works. By this day we indulged in each other’s company, adding a bit more personality into this whole trip. This is the day we really went over the various Japanese terms used in Nihonga painting and learned more about strategies when approaching and creating a traditional Japanese painting with mineral pigments. By the end of the day, Judy was gracious enough to provide available Nihonga pigments and products to sell to the students. The materials used are often imported and expensive, so she certainly considered convenience and options for the students taking her course.
To conclude, my experience with Judith Kruger’s Nihonga painting course took me to a whole new perspective of painting. It was also a rejuvenating social experience when I met so many people and indulged in the nightlife in Savannah. SCAD, which seems to also own most of downtown Savannah, also has a strong influence reigning on the city through the students and faculty. The knowledge gained has made a fine addition to my skills in Western painting and Asian art research. Her instructions were very clear and the demonstrations were hands-on. There is a lot of information covered for a short amount of time but that’s when note-taking skills come in. The evenings after each class day has proved to be a fun experience as well. We went to dinner and Judy even invited the students to her own home for dinner and to show her wonderful art book collection (some which are out-of-print). She has a vast network of resources she has to offer to all academic and professional crowds.
If you ever had any form of interests in traditional Japanese paintings, I would highly recommend Judith Kruger’s course in Nihonga. You may check out her website at www.judithkruger.comfor her portfolio or if you have any inquiries.
Sanzenbon nikawa recipe: Standard glue solution
For pigments: 20 grams* and 300cc water (adjust
to particle size and specific layer on painting)
* each stick is about 10 grams
Nikawa solutions vary as follows:
Finer pigment requires weaker glue
Coarser pigment requires stronger glue
Lower layer on painting requires stronger glue
Higher layer on painting requires weaker glue
More humidity and damp weather requires stronger glue
Less humidity and dry weather requires weaker glue
In summer months use weaker glue
Soak nikawa in warm water overnight or for a few hours. Transfer to a double boiler or crock pot (stove OK- just be careful not to boil as glue will lose its strength). Heat and stir to thoroughly mix. If the glue seems dirty it can be strained through a fine mesh strainer or through cheesecloth rubber banded to a jar or small bowl.
This glue will last in the fridge for about 5-7 days. It will smell when it is old and it will not feel sticky on your fingers when it is spent.
For applying leaf: make a 2% nikawa-80% water solution, apply three coats-last coat remains wet and then place leaf on
For paper size: 1 tsp alum in 150cc very hot water to dissolve then mix
with 200cc nikawa solution. Dosa lasts for about 3-6 months as the
alum acts as a preservative.
Shufu nori recipie: paste for mounting
Mix 1 part wheat starch to 6 parts water in saucepan. Cook slowly to start, then turn the heat up a bit, then slow it down again, just keep it bubbling stirring all the time. It will turn from a milky color to a transparent color- losing its stiffness. Cook for another 10 minutes and then let it cool. Push the cooled paste through a strainer with a wooden spoon to get all lumps out then transfer to a paste bowl and mash with a paste brush (can use a stiff wallpaper brush) while adding a little water at a time to desired consistency. Will keep for a few days at room temp covered. When it smells or is moldy you will know when to toss it.